Página web para estudiantes de secundaria
Correo
AsignaturasCómo estudiar Proyectos y pensamiento críticoSelectividadOTHER. Adolescentes alienígenas y otros seresGrupos de Apoyo al Trabajo Intelectual
Volver a Portada
 Lecturas interesantesExposicionesPintadasProfesForos
Estás en Áreas y materias / volver a Inglés
Versión imprimible
Modal auxiliaries - Use and examples

Versión en winword, 2 páginas (4ºESO, Bachillerato) Aquí, 4 páginas
Resuelve tus dudas en el foro

Obligation (Forced by circumstances - duties)
Forzada/o por las circunstancias/obligaciones

She has to study for her exams.                               She's got to study
You don't have to do exercise 3.                              You haven't got to do
Do we have to wear smart clothes to the party?      Have we got to wear… ?

Obligation (I say so!)
Por la santa voluntad de quien habla o por el deber moral que se siente

You must be quiet!!! (angry teacher to students)
You mustn´t do that! (angry parent to son/daughter)

Authorities - las autoridades

You must fasten your seatbelts (authorities: giving rules)
You mustn't smoke here (public health authorities; giving rules, prohibiting something)

With first person "I" or "We" it is moral obligation

I must study (I know it's my duty and I haven´t been doing it, but now…)
We must stop quarrelling

Permission (giving/not giving permission, asking for permiss.)
Permiso (dar o no darlo, pedirlo)

You may leave now                                You may not leave now           May I leave now?
You can smoke if you want to                 You can't smoke in here          Can I smoke? ver can, could
You are allowed to smoke in this room   You aren't allowed to smoke   May I smoke?

Offering help (asking to do something for 2nd persons)
Ofrecer ayuda (Mira aquí también)

Shall
I carry that (for you)? (¿Te llevo eso?)
Shall we call an ambulance? (¿Llamamos a ...?)

Note: only questions; subject: 1st persons: "I", "we"; translated in the present

Una frase suelta: Can I help you?

Asking for help (asking a 2nd p. to do something for you)
Pedir ayuda
(Mira aquí también)

Will you help us with these parcels? (¿Nos ayudáis ...?)
Will you go & get some chalk, please? (¿Me vas a por...?)

Note: only questions; subject: 2nd persons: you; translated in the present

Making requests
Hacer peticiones

May I borrow your pen? (very formal)
Could I use your telephone? (formal, polite: for people you know and people you don't know!)
Can I wear your green T-shirt today (oh, please, say yes)? (informal: you know the person well)

Making suggestions
Hacer sugerencias, proponer cosas

Why don't we go dancing? (informal) Why don't we call your neighbour?
We could go dancing (objective possibility!) We could call your neighbour
Let's go dancing! (enthusiastic) Let´s call him/her
Why don't you leave me alone (once and for all)?

Giving and asking for advice
Dar y pedir consejo

You should study a bit more, really.                   You ought to study more
You shouldn't worry so much. It'll be all right.
What should I do? Should I phone her/him or not?


CAN and COULD

Tienen muchas funciones, algunas han salido ya y otras no. A continuación, un repasito.

Ability
Capacidad de hacer algo

She can speak four languages (Puede hablar; Sabe hablar…)
How many languages can you speak?
I can't type (No sé escribir a máquina)

Ability in the past... could

When I was ten I could swim (Sabía nadar a los 10)

Permission
Permiso

You can smoke if you want to; You can't smoke in here; Can I smoke?

Permission or request???
¿Permiso o petición?

Can/Could I try this pair of trousers on, please?

Requests
Peticiones

Can/Could you give me a larger size, please?
Can/Could I have some stamps, please?
Can/Could you tell me the way to the station, please?
Could I use your telephone? (formal, polite)
Can I wear your green T-shirt today? (informal)
If Susan calls again, can you tell her to phone back later?
If Peter calls again, could you tell him I'm out?
Can/Could you ask her to phone me at work?

Suggestions/Proposals
Sugerencias/Propuestas

We can go to the cinema (Podemos ir al cine)
We could go dancing (Podríamos ir a bailar)
We could buy her/him a present (Podríamos comprarle un regalo)

Possibility: may, could, might
Puede que... Podría ser que... Pudiera ser que... (de posibilidad neutra a lo más improbable)

(The teacher is not here, but she is often late)
She may be late, as usual (Puede que llegue tarde, como siempre)
She could be ill (Podría estar enferma; puede que esté enferma; a lo mejor está enferma)
She might have been run over by a car (less likely; Pudiera ser que la hubiera pillado...)

Drawing conclusions
Deducir cosas

Oh, come on, she can't be dead! (no puede estar muerta; no es posible esto)
She must have fallen asleep again! (Debe de haberse dormido)
She must have missed the bus (Debe de haber perdido el autobús)

Dos notas importantes: WOULD y WILL

"Would" = -ría (Condicional)

Lo compraría (si... + condición) = I would buy it/ I'd buy it.
Siempre va seguido del verbo en infinitivo sin "to". Por eso, aunque esté contraído, se diferencia del "had" = I'd bought it when they arrived (Lo había comprado ya cuando llegaron)

I WANT TO BUY some stamps
I DON'T WANT to leave
DO you WANTto have a drink?
I'D LIKE TO BUY some stamps
I WOULDN'T LIKE to leave
WOULD you LIKEto have a drink?

Ver Like/Want (archivo pdf, 1 pág.)


"Will" sirve para tres cosas:


Se traduce por presente:

en las peticiones de favores tipo "Will you...?"

y en las decisiones instantáneas:

Lo cojo yo! (el teléfono) = I'll answer it!
Q uiero una coca = I'll have a coke
Te ayudo = I'll help you.

Se traduce por futuro:

en las predicciones:

¿Qué harás (si te vas de casa)? = What will you do?
Dormiré al aire libre = I`ll sleep on the rough
Encontraré un trabajo = I'll find a job.
¿Cuándo aprobarán una buena ley de inmigración? = When will they pass a good Inmigration Act?
¿Qué tiempo hará mañana? = What will the weather be like tomorrow?
Lloverá= It'll rain.

"Predicción" significa que es lo que se espera que ocurra, pero que no es seguro, ni mucho menos.

Al hablar del futuro, en inglés es muy importante aclarar qué posibilidades hay de que ese futuro ocurra. Ver los futuros. No les gusta asegurar lo que puede que no ocurra. Así, hay varios niveles de probabilidad, de lo que es más probable que ocurra (el present continuous con valor futuro y el "going to" future) a lo que podría no ocurrir (el "will" future).

Present continuous
I'm studying this afternoon
(Muy probable que ocurra: has quedado con alguien a una hora)

"Going to" future
I'm going to study this afternoon
(Tengo ese plan/intención - intención sajona: te esforzarás por conseguirlo)

"Will" future
I'll study, I think/suppose
(A lo mejor, algún día se pone...; o sea, no es probable)


OTRAS COSITAS

I agree = Estoy de acuerdo; I disagree / I don't agree = No estoy de acuerdo; Do you agree? = ¡Estás/estáis de acuerdo?Yes, please/ Thank your very much/ Not at all/ Very kind of you/ Certainly/ Yes, of course/ OK, then/ Wait a moment, please/ Hold on/ See you, then/ It was lovely/ Lovely, thank you/ It's all right/ Sorry/ Excuse me.

mujerpalabra.net